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In 1946, construction of a complex (block) began for the first specialists in the rocket and space industry, located between Frunze, Karl Marx, Tsiolkovsky, and Lesnaya streets. The block was home to the first employees of NII-88, deputies and associates of S. P. Korolev, V. P. Mishin, V. P. Glushko, creators of the rocket and space industry, chief designers, academicians, and scientists.

From 2016 to 2022, the fate of the block was under threat from the General Plan, which envisaged the demolition of houses and high-rise construction in the very heart of the historical center of Russia’s space capital.

In August 2023, the block was included in the list of identified objects of cultural heritage of the Moscow region.

The historical block on Frunze is a valuable monument of history and culture that needs to be preserved as an object of cultural heritage. The alternative is the demolition and construction of the block in the city center with high-rise residential buildings.
What is the value of the historical buildings in the block?
Universal Historical Value
The block was built in accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated May 13, 1946, "Issues of Reactive Armament," with the aim of providing housing for "our specialists" - rocket scientists at the newly formed NII-88 (now TsNIImash). Thus, the block became the world’s first residential block built in the world’s first space capital. The buildings of the block are witnesses to historical events that have influenced the development of all humanity.
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Memorial Value
The designers and scientists living in the block took direct part in the preparation, organization, and implementation of Soviet defense and space programs, essentially creating a new, highly complex, cutting-edge, high-tech industry from scratch. This opened the way for humanity to space. The residents of the block played a significant role in creating domestic cosmonautics. The historical and memorial significance of the ensemble is associated with the names of many outstanding figures in the rocket and space industry. Ten leaders of their own enterprises lived in the block.
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Architectural and Urban Planning Value
The ensemble of residential buildings represents an authentic, integral element of the urban spatial and architectural-artistic environment of the mid-20th century, forming a unique character even in the historical part of the city. The preserved buildings are concentrated within the boundaries of one block, providing an ensemble perception of the development fragment. Preserving these buildings maintains a connection to significant historical events and figures, and it also preserves the architectural heritage and urban character of the mid-20th century.

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The history of the block is narrated by a resident of house № 14 on Frunze Street, Lieutenant Colonel of the Soviet Union’s military space forces in retirement, representative of the USSR Ministry of Defense at the NPO "Energiya" enterprise, Valeriy Ogolyar.
Historical Value
In June-July 1944, the correspondence between Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin mentioned the launch of a secret weapon by the Germans — flying rockets from a range near the Polish village of Blizna. They were discussing test launches of the V-2 (A4) rocket developed by German engineer Wernher von Braun.

In August-September 1944, a special commission worked in Poland, which transported a number of V-2 rocket parts to the Soviet Union. Their study was entrusted, among others, to specialists from NII-1, including V.P. Mishin, A.M. Isaev, and L.A. Voskresensky — future residents of the block on Frunze Street.
From May 1945, specialists from all the People’s Commissariats of the USSR were sent to Germany to study German technology, including rocket technology.

Among the specialists sent to Germany were future residents of the block on Frunze Street: A.M. Isaev, V.P. Mishin, L.A. Voskresensky, V.P. Kharchev, V.S. Budnik, S.S. Kryukov, S.S. Lavrov, M.F. Reshetnev, I.N. Sadovsky, V.G. Dyukov, G.S. Vetrov, D.I. Kozlov, N.A. Maltsev, L.L. Podgorskaya, and other specialists, many of whom later became employees of NII-88 and then headed their own enterprises in the rocket and space industry.
In late 1945, relations between the USA and the USSR worsened due to issues of post-war political settlement in Iran and the USSR’s territorial claims to Turkey. A few months later, Winston Churchill delivered a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, which went down in history as the trigger for the beginning of the "Cold War."

On March 14, 1946, at a meeting of the Kaliningrad Executive Committee of the Council of Deputies of Working People, the issue of "Allocating a land plot for the construction of five two-story houses for Trust No. 54 within the boundaries of K. Marx, Stalin, and Frunze streets" was discussed. The decision was made: "In order to preserve green plantings in the city center, find another site for the construction of houses for Trust No. 54, preserving the green massif in the block of Frunze, K. Marx, and Stalin streets for cultural events in the spring-summer period."
At a meeting of the Kaliningrad Executive Committee on March 25, 1946, the issue of "Allocating a land plot for the construction of five two-story houses for Trust No. 54" was revisited. The decision stated: "Change the decision of the executive committee from March 14, 1946, on allocating a land plot to Trust No. 54 for the construction of five houses, taking into account the layout, proximity of sewer and electrical networks, and allocate a land plot in the block of Frunze, Stalin, and Karl Marx streets, measuring 200×225 m, for the construction of houses for Trust No. 54, with subsequent approval of the construction plan at the Executive Committee."
By the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 1017−491ss dated May 13, 1946, item 9, a Research Institute and Design Bureau were established based on Plant No. 88 in the city of Kaliningrad (now Korolev).

Item 31 provided for the allocation of 150 Finnish houses and 40 log eight-apartment houses for the accommodation of foreign specialists.

At the Executive Committee meeting on May 24, 1946, the issue of "Approving the project for the construction of 16 slag-concrete houses for Trust No. 54 of the Ministry of Armaments" was considered.

"Decided: 1. Approve the project for the construction of 16 two-story slag-concrete houses for Trust No. 54, according to the attached general plan of the site, developed by GSPI-7."
From March to October 1947, the No. 3 department was engaged in intense work on preparing technical documentation in Russian for the V-2 rocket. S. P. Korolev divided the department into two parts: V. P. Mishin headed the calculation-theoretical part, and V. S. Budnik headed the design part.

During the same period, S. P. Korolev and L. R. Gonar were engaged in personnel selection for NII-88. Thus, department No. 3, which had 60 engineers and 78 auxiliary personnel in March 1947, grew to 310 people by the end of the year. Departments preparing rocket profile specialists were organized at leading machine-building and defense universities (MAI, MSTU, LVMU, MEI, etc.). Refresher courses for engineers were organized at MSTU named after Bauman, where S. P. Korolev gave a course of lectures on the design of long-range ballistic missiles.

The first stage of rocket development included the preparation and launch of V-2 rockets assembled in Germany and at Plant No. 88 from parts of German rockets found by our specialists. Tests of rockets assembled in Germany and at the plant were conducted at the Kapustin Yar range from mid-October to the end of November.

Factory Testing of the R-1 Rocket First Series

Kaliningrad, 1942
In an effort to alleviate the tense housing situation, the Komsomol organization of the <…> factory, in honor of the 70th anniversary of Comrade Stalin’s birthday, constructed a two-story 16-apartment building with the efforts of the Komsomol members and the factory’s youth.
The construction of the block was predominantly carried out from May-June 1948 to December 1949. Architect N. G. Ryabtsev selected projects from leading architects of the Soviet Union during those years. Thus, the corner houses were designed by the architectural workshop of Vostoknefti S. A. Maslikh and N. N. Slotintseva; the houses consisting of two sections were designed by architects D. S. Meerson and S. P. Selivanovsky — Gorstroyproekt. The houses in the center of the block were designed by M. P. Parusnikov — State Design Workshops. The kindergarten was built according to the design of architect APM of the Ministry of Education N. A. Yakobson.

The construction of the first stage was initially carried out with the participation of German prisoners of war, and later — with the participation of Soviet prisoners. During the construction of houses on the south side of Tsiolkovsky Street, the construction was carried out by hired workers. For the construction of NII-88 and sites in the city of Kaliningrad, a camp for 4,000 people was organized for the special contingent involved in the construction.

In the book "Among the Ural Mountains" by author Y. Bobryshev in 2015, the memories of V. P. Makeev are cited:
  • Yuri Bobryshev
    Author of the book "Among the Ural Mountains"
    You have experience in building a youth residential house in Podlipki.
  • Viktor Makeev
    Chief Designer of KBM (now Makeev State Rocket Centre), Founder of the Soviet School of Naval Strategic Missile Engineering
    But I had to, to put it mildly, deal with builders and suppliers a lot. Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel helped a lot, he was always available for a meeting and the builders listened to him unconditionally. I even developed a friendly relationship with him. <…> Interestingly, several couples formed during the construction, who soon got married, having apartments built with their own hands.
Testing of the R-5M Rocket with a Nuclear Charge
Qualifying tests of the long-range R-5M rocket with a nuclear charge
Thus, the construction of the block was carried out not only with the involvement of the "special contingent," but also with the involvement of Komsomol members from NII-88.

From 1950 to 1953, the design, manufacture, and testing of the R-5 rocket with a range of 1200 km were carried out. On April 10, 1954, by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the first domestic strategic missile R-5M, based on the R-5 rocket, was being developed, which was intended to deliver a nuclear charge to a distance of 1200 km.

The first successful launch was made on January 21, 1955, and on February 2, 1954, the R-5M rocket was launched with a real nuclear charge. This marked the beginning of the creation of the country’s missile-nuclear shield.
NII-88 Rockets Developed Before 1957
The first launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile in the USA took place on March 17, 1958 — after the USSR had launched both the first satellite and the first living creature into space — the dog Laika.
At the OKB-1 enterprise under the management of S. P. Korolev in the mid-40s — early 50s of the 20th century, the first domestic ballistic missiles of various types were created — from mobile ground-based tactical complexes to ballistic missiles of submarines and strategic intercontinental carriers of thermonuclear weapons.

14 strategic missile complexes were developed here, 11 of which were put into service and transferred to serial production at other factories, including complexes of the first liquid and solid-fuel rockets, including rockets on high- and low-boiling components of liquid fuel.

The first space rocket R-7 was created, which remains one of the most reliable space rockets in the world to this day. These projects laid the foundations for the further development of the country's missile armament and created the prerequisites for the exploration of outer space.

A two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile with a detachable warhead. Many thanks to Nick Stevens for visualizing the R-7.
The world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile to successfully undergo tests and deliver a warhead to intercontinental range (August 21, 1957).
The R-7 is a liquid-fueled, two-stage monoblock ICBM. It is designed with a "package" scheme — four side blocks of the first stage are arranged around the central block of the second stage.
The flight range is 8,000 km, which is more than the distance from Baikonur to Alaska.
The World's First ICBM
A Unique Missile
Range: 8,000 km
Nuclear Shield
Warhead: One 3-megaton thermonuclear charge
From Sputnik to the ISS
Based on the R-7, a whole family of medium-class launch vehicles was created, making a significant contribution to space exploration. Many spacecraft, starting with the very first ones, as well as all Soviet and Russian cosmonauts, starting with the first cosmonaut of Earth, Yuri Gagarin, were launched into space on launch vehicles of the R-7 family.
Payload: Up to 5.4 tons
The missile can carry a payload of up to 5.37 tons.
Memorial value
In the first block, specially built for "our specialists," people settled whom L.R. Gonchar and S.P. Korolev gathered from all over the country to work at NII-88. The creators of the rocket and space industry, the authors of the first practical ideas for the development of astronautics — the R-7 ballistic missile.
  • Anatoly Abramov
    Karl Marx Street 15
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev (TsKBEM — V.P. Mishin, NPO "Energia" - V.P. Glushko), head of complex № 6 for ground equipment (cosmodromes) and experimental development.
  • Vasily Mishin
    Karl Marx Street 7/12
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    One of the founders of Soviet practical cosmonautics, Chief Designer of OKB-1 — TsKBEM, deputy and successor of S.P. Korolev.
  • Alexey Isaev
    Lesnaya Street 14
    Chief Designer of OKB-2 Design Bureau of Chemical Machine-Building (now KB Khimmash named after A.M. Isaev)
  • Leonid Voskresensky
    Karl Marx Street 15
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev for testing, Head of Department № 308 at MAI (Moscow Aviation Institute), one of the closest friends of S.P. Korolev.
  • Viktor Klyucharyov
    Frunze Street 10
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev (TsKBEM — V.P. Mishin, NPO "Energia" - V.P. Glushko), Director of the Experimental Machine-Building Plant (ZEM).
  • Konstantin Busheev
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev (TsKBEM — V.P. Mishin, NPO "Energia" - V.P. Glushko), head of the design complex № 2, one of the creators of a series of spacecraft for the exploration of the Moon, Venus, Mars, and the "Vostok", "Voskhod", "Soyuz" spacecrafts, technical director of the Soyuz-Apollo project from the Soviet side.
  • Igor Sadovsky
    Karl Marx Street 9
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev (TsKBEM — V.P. Mishin, NPO "Energia" - V.P. Glushko), designer of solid-fuel rockets and the "Energia" launch vehicle.
  • Alexandra Pustovoitenko
    Karl Marx Street 11
    Chair of the Executive Committee of the City Council of Workers from 1964 to 1975, Honorary Citizen of Kaliningrad (Korolev), from 1958 to 1963 — Head of the Editorial Publishing Group of the Department of Scientific and Technical Information at NII-88.
  • Vasily Budnik
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    One of the founders of rocket and space technology, First Deputy Chief Designer of the Design Bureau "Yuzhnoye", Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin Prize Laureate.
  • Sergey Kryukov
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev, Chief Designer of NPO "Energiya" V.P. Glushko, designer of the first intercontinental ballistic missile R-7, Chief Designer of NPO Lavochkin.
  • Svyatoslav Lavrov
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    Pioneer of domestic programming, Head of the Ballistics Group at OKB-1.
  • Vasily Kharchev
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    Head of counterintelligence at the Soviet-German missile institute "Rabe"; Head of the sector at OKB-2 at NII № 88
  • Vasily Boldyrev
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    First Chair of the Executive Committee of the City Council of Workers (1938−1943)
  • Mikhail Reshetnev
    Frunze Street 18
    Chief Designer of the Design Bureau of Applied Mechanics in Krasnoyarsk-26, developer of the "Kosmos" launch vehicle, Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev, one of the founders of Soviet cosmonautics. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
  • Viktor Makeev
    Frunze Street 18
    Founder of the scientific and design school of maritime strategic missile engineering of the Soviet Union and Russia. General Designer of the Design Bureau of Machine-Building (now JSC "State Rocket Center named after Academician V.P. Makeev" in Miass).
  • Boris Rodionov
    Frunze Street 18
    Director of the Central Research Institute of Materials Science (JSC "Composite"), First Secretary of the City Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1968 — 1947), Deputy General Director of NPO "Energiya"
  • Vladimir Kondakov
    Karl Marx Street 17
    Specialist in the field of vibrational strength of rocket technology products. Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR, head of the laboratory and department of TsNIIMash. Author and co-author of four industry standards, more than 10 industry regulatory and technical documents.
  • Elena Kondakova
    Karl Marx Street 17
    The third female cosmonaut of Russia, pilot-cosmonaut of the Russian Federation, Hero of the Russian Federation, political figure
  • Sadovy Viktor
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    Head of the secret group working on the first nuclear warhead of Soviet ballistic missiles (R-5m), head of the department at OKB-1. Worked on Sputnik-1, spacecraft, R-7, N-1, MKTS "Energiya-Buran".
  • Pavel Troshin
    Karl Marx Street 17
    Deputy Director of NII-88, Chief Engineer of NII-88, head of special train №2
  • Dmitry Kozlov
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    General Designer of TsSKB-Progress in Samara. Leading designer of the R-5 missile, later leading designer of the R-7 missile. Organized missile production in Samara.
  • Konstantin Karacharov
    Frunze Street 14
    Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, head of the department of ballistic calculations of one of the Leningrad Research Institutes, employee of OKB-1, responsible executor of scientific reports of the Department of FEST of MLTI.
  • Konstantin Gorbatenko
    Lesnaya Street 18
    Deputy Head of the spacecraft assembly shop of TsKBEM, NPO ZEM "Energiya", Hero of Socialist Labor, 47 times wished cosmonauts a successful flight and return to Earth, met them after landing.
  • Anatoly Voltcifer
    Tsiolkovsky Street 21/20
    Head of complex № 14 for pneumatic hydraulic system units in terms of creating fittings, deputy of complex № 1 (design), deputy of complex № 5 (fittings), engines and pipelines of rocket and space technology products.
  • Vadim Dyukov
    Karl Marx Street 15
    Deputy Chief Designer of NIIIT for the development of sensor equipment for rocket and space technology products. Head of the department at TsNIIMash.
  • Lev Malysh
    Tsiolkovsky Street 19
    Deputy Chief Designer for General Issues
  • Andrey Larin
    Lesnaya Street 18
    Hero of the Soviet Union, awarded the Order of Lenin, the Gold Star, the Order of the Patriotic War 1st degree, medals "For Courage", "For the Capture of Berlin", "For the Liberation of Prague".
  • Raisa Pozamantir
    Lesnaya Street 14
    Historian, local lore specialist, journalist, Honorary Citizen of Korolev city.
  • Arkady Ostashev
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    Leading tester of rockets and rocket-space complexes at OKB-1, deputy head of complex № 10 for preparation and conduct of flight tests at TsKBEM.
  • Mikhail Medkov
    Tsiolkovsky Street 17/21
    Deputy Chief Designer for production at OKB-3 of NII-88, secretary of the party committee of the M.I. Kalinin plant.
  • Nikolay Podgorsky
    Karl Marx Street 17
    Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR, Deputy General Designer for the development of launch vehicles and space complexes at TsKBEM, one of the founders of Soviet practical cosmonautics, worked on the Vostok, Voskhod, Soyuz spacecraft, and the N-1 launch vehicle.
  • Georgy Nedoshyvin
    Frunze Street 14
    Director of branch № 1 of OKB-1 on Gorodomlya Island, director of the floating gyroscope plant.